Tagesexkursion an jüdische Orte im Kitzingen, 16.11.2014

Error message

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Die achte Exkursion des Kooperationsprojektes „Landjudentum in Unterfranken“ führte am Sonntag, den 16. November 2014 in den Landkreis Kitzingen. Besucht wurden Wiesenbronn, Rödelsee und Obernbreit. Mit 36 Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmern war die Exkursion gut besucht.

 

In Wiesenbronn existierte bis 1938/42 eine jüdische Gemeinde, deren Entstehung bis in das 17./18. Jahrhundert zurückreicht. Ihre sichtbarste Spur ist die Synagoge im klassizistischen Stil aus dem Jahr 1792 in der Badersgasse. Davor war bereits eine Synagoge aus dem Jahr 1718 an selber Stelle vorhanden.

Wiesenbronn ist ein Beispiel für eine große, doch arme jüdische Landgemeinde. Das lässt sich auch am Gebäude der Synagoge erkennen, die Vorsängerhaus und den eigentlichen Betraum in einem Gebäude vereint: Im Untergeschoss war die Wohnung des Rabbiners untergebracht, während sich die eigentliche Synagoge im Obergeschoss befand. Zweigeschossige Häuser sind in dieser Umgebung selten.

Die jüdische Gemeinde, sie umfasste im Jahre 1850 noch 100 Mitglieder, die sich bis 1930 um die Hälfte reduziert hatten, verkaufte das Anwesen unter Druck des Nazi-Regimes im Juni 1938 an eine siebenköpfige nicht-jüdische Familie. Diese nutzte das Haus als Wohnraum und nahm zahlreiche Umbauten vor: Fenster, Türen und Böden wurden verändert und die Mikwe, das jüdische Ritualbad, zugeschüttet.

Als Reinhard Hüßner, der die Gruppe durch die Synagoge führte, das Haus im Jahr 2005 mit seiner Ehefrau Michaela kaufte, setzte er es auf die Denkmalliste und ließ alle Anbauten nach 1938 entfernen. Das Ergebnis nach zahlreichen Renovierungsarbeiten ist eine gelungene Rekonstruktion nach damaligem Vorbild, mit einer freigeräumten Mikwe und einigen Glasvitrinen, die Geniza-Funde der Synagoge zur Schau stellen. Bei einer Geniza handelt es sich um ein Versteck für Schriften oder liturgische Gegenstände, die den Gottesnamen enthalten und daher nicht vernichtet werden dürfen.

 

Nach einer Pause wurde der jüdische Friedhof von Rödelsee unter Begleitung von Gerlinde Wagner besichtigt. Auf 19.000 Quadratmetern am Fuß des Schwanbergs befinden sich zwischen 2000 und 2500 Gräber, es handelt sich um einen der größten jüdischen Friedhöfe in Bayern. Bereits in den Jahren 1432 und 1526 wird der Rödelseer Friedhof genannt, er dürfte also schon einige Zeit zuvor entstanden sein. Im Jahr 1563 bestätigte Wilhelm Moritz von Heßberg den Friedhof auch offiziell als Begräbnisplatz für die jüdische Gemeinde. Ob der heutige Friedhof jenem alten Begräbnisplatz entspricht, ist nicht belegt.

Wie bei den meisten älteren jüdischen Friedhöfen, handelt es sich bei Rödelsee ebenfalls um einen Bezirksfriedhof, der unter anderem auch für die jüdischen Gemeinden Wiesenbronn und Obernbreit zuständig war. Ein Gefallenendenkmal erinnert an die im 1. Weltkrieg gefallenen jüdischen Soldaten. Im Jahr 1950 wurde ein Gedenkstein für die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus aufgestellt. Ursprünglich handelte es sich bei dem Gedenkstein um den Waschtisch des Taharahäuschens (hebr. tahor bedeutet „rein“, in diesem Gebäude wurde die Leichenwaschung durchgeführt), das während dem Novemberpogrom 1938 in Brand gesteckt wurde. Im Jahr 1981 wurde dieser bei einer anderen Schändung zerstört und zwei Jahre später durch einen neuen Gedenkstein ersetzt.

Neben den historischen Gegebenheiten, ging Frau Wagner auch auf die Gestaltung der Grabsteine ein, wie die bekannten hebräischen Buchstaben, die sich am Ende jedes jüdischen Grabsteins finden und die als Abkürzung „Seine Seele möge eingebunden sein in das Bündel des Lebens“ bedeuten: Tehi Nafscho/Nafscha Zerura Bizror Hachajim.

 

Im Anschluss daran fuhr die Gruppe nach Obernbreit, wo Friedrich Heidecker das Programm übernahm.

Die jüdische Gemeinde Obernbreit bildete sich im 16./17. Jahrhundert und bestand bis in das Jahr 1911. In der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts erlebte sie eine Blütezeit mit bis zu 157 Mitgliedern, was 12 Prozent der damals 1.279 Einwohner Obernbreits ausmachte. Die jüdische Gemeinde, die überwiegend aus Händlern bestand, war nicht wohlhabend, doch ihre Mittel genügten, den Bau einer Synagoge im Jahr 1748 zu finanzieren, sowie einer Religionsschule Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts.

Herr Heidecker begann mit seiner Führung vor dem Chuppastein, dem sogenannten Hochzeitsstein, der sich bei allen Synagogen außerhalb befindet und an welchem die frisch Vermählten ein Glas zerschmettern, um der Zerstörung der zwei Tempel zu gedenken. In der Mitte des angebrachten Davidsterns steht „Mazal Tow“, das „Viel Glück“ bedeutet. Die Führung wurde im inneren Bereich mit einer Foto-Präsentation der Renovierung fortgesetzt: Hier wurde bewusst auf Verschönerungen verzichtet und streng auf den Erhalt der originalen Spuren geachtet. Anschließend erhielt die Gruppe die Möglichkeit die Mikwe zu besichtigen, die sich in 10 Metern Tiefe unter der Synagoge befindet und die erst vor wenigen Jahren wiederentdeckt wurde.

 

Wie die Exkursionen davor, diente auch diese dazu, Interessierten die Möglichkeit zu bieten, die sichtbaren Spuren jüdischer Geschichte im Raum Unterfranken kennen zu lernen. Bisher führten die Exkursionen in die Landkreise Haßberge, Würzburg, Main-Spessart und Kitzingen, sowie in die Stadt Aschaffenburg und den Raum Schweinfurt. Für das Kooperationsprojekt erfüllen die Exkursionen jedoch zugleich die Funktion, die Grundlagen für die touristische Erschließung der jüdischen Landschaft zu leisten, wie sie in Form von Themenwegen, Broschüren oder App’s vorbereitet werden.

Weitere Exkursionen befinden sich für das Jahr 2015 in Planung und sollen in die Landkreise Miltenberg und Rhön-Grabfeld führen.

Start: 
Sunday, 16. November 2014